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edited by AIFA’s Office of Osmed and HTA

Glossary

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HAEMOVIGILANCE
A set of organised surveillance procedures relating to serious adverse or unexpected events or reactions in donors or recipients of blood products, and the epidemiological follow-up of donors. [Source: Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003]
HEALTH
A state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities. It is recognised, however, that health has many dimensions (anatomical, physiological, and mental) and is largely culturally defined. [Source: WHOTERM WHO Terminology Information System]
HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
A health care provider or health professional is an organisation or person who delivers proper health care in a systematic way professionally to any individual in need of health care services. [Source: Global Conference on the Future of Hospital Pharmacy]
HEALTH ECONOMICS
The study of how scarce resources are allocated among alternative uses for the care of sickness and the promotion, maintenance and improvement of health, including the study of how health care and health related services, their costs and benefits, and health itself are distributed among individuals and groups in society.
HEALTH ESTABLISHMENT
A health establishment is the whole or part of a public or private facility, building or place, whether operated for profit or not, that is operated or designed to provide health care services including the supply of pharmaceutical products to the end user. [Source: WHO. Good distribution practices (GDP) for pharmaceutical products]
HEALTH EXPENDITURE (HE, TOTAL HEALTH EXPENDITURE, THE)
Health expenditure is defined as the sum of expenditure on activities that – through application of medical, paramedical, and nursing knowledge and technology – has the goals of: - Promoting health and preventing disease; - Curing illness and reducing premature mortality; - Caring for persons affected by chronic illness who require nursing care; - Caring for persons with health-related impairments, disability, and handicaps who require nursing care; - Assisting patients to die with dignity; - Providing and administering public health; - Providing and administering health programmes, health insurance and other funding arrangements. Health expenditure includes expenditure on: Personal health (curative care, rehabilitative care, long term nursing care, ancillary services to health care, medical goods dispensed to out-patients) and expenditure on Collective health (prevention and public health, administration and insurance). Health expenditure can be separated in: Public expenditure: health expenditure incurred by public funds (state, regional and local government bodies and social security schemes). Private expenditure: privately funded part of total health expenditure. Private sources of funds include out-of-pocket payments (both over-the-counter and cost-sharing), private insurance programmes, charities and occupational health care. [Source: OECD. A System of Health Accounts]
HEALTH INFORMATION
Health information is information and data that relates to the past, present or future health or condition of an individual or the provision, organisation and funding of health care.
HEALTH STATUS
The state of health of a specified individual, group, or population. It may be measured by obtaining proxies such as people's subjective assessments of their health; by one or more indicators of mortality and morbidity in the population, such as longevity or maternal and infant mortality; or by using the incidence or prevalence of major diseases. Conceptually, health status is the proper outcome measure for the effectiveness of a specific population's medical care system, although attempts to relate effects of available medical care to variations in health status have proved difficult. [Source: WHO. A Glossary of Terms for Community Health Care and Services for Older Persons]
HEALTH TECHNOLOGY
Health technologies include medicines, medical devices such as artificial hip joints, diagnostic techniques, surgical procedures, health promotion activities (e.g. the role of diet versus medicines in disease management) and other therapeutic interventions. [Source: NICE Glossary]
HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT (HTA)
Health technology is the application of scientific knowledge in health care and prevention. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary process that summarises information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner. Its aim is to inform the formulation of safe, effective, health policies that are patient focused and seek to achieve best value. [Source: EUnetHTA]
HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Any medicinal product, exclusively containing as active ingredients one or more herbal substances or one or more herbal preparations, or one or more such herbal substances in combination with one or more such herbal preparations. Herbal substances All mainly whole, fragmented or cut plants, plant parts, algae, fungi, lichen in an unprocessed, usually dried, form, but sometimes fresh. Certain exudates that have not been subjected to a specific treatment are also considered to be herbal substances. Herbal substances are precisely defined by the plant part used and the botanical name according to the binomial system (genus, species, variety and author). Herbal preparations Preparations obtained by subjecting herbal substances to treatments such as extraction, distillation, expression, fractionation, purification, concentration or fermentation. These include comminuted or powdered herbal substances, tinctures, extracts, essential oils, expressed juices and processed exudates. [Source: Directive 2001/83/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use]
HIGH-COST PATIENT
A patient whose condition requires large financial expenditures or significant human and technological resources.
HIGH-RISK PATIENT
A patient who has a complex or catastrophic illness or injury or who requires extensive medical interventions or treatment plans.
HIGH-RISK PROCEDURES
Generic procedures involving the preparation and administration of (medicinal) products that have been identified by risk assessment as most likely to pose a significant risk to patients. [Source: National Patient Safety Agency. Patient Safety Alert No. 20]
HIGH-RISK PRODUCTS
Those (medicinal) products whose preparation and/or administration have been identified by risk assessment as most likely to pose a significant risk to patients. [Source: National Patient Safety Agency. Patient Safety Alert No. 20]
HOME CARE
This item comprises medical and paramedical services delivered to patients at home. Included are obstetric services at home, home dialysis, telematic services and the like. It excludes the consumption of medical goods (pharmaceuticals, other medical goods) dispensed to out-patientout-patients as part of private household consumption. [Source: OECD. A System of Health Accounts]
HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Any medicinal product prepared from substances called homeopathic stocks in accordance with a homeopathic manufacturing procedure described by the European Pharmacopoeia or, in the absence thereof, by the pharmacopoeias currently used officially in the Member States. A homeopathic medicinal product may contain a number of principles. [Source: Directive 2001/83/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use]
HOSPICE (HOSPICE CARE)
Facility or program providing care for the terminally ill. Hospice care involves a team-oriented approach that addresses the medical, physical, social, emotional and spiritual needs of the patient. Hospice also provides support to the patient’s family or caregiver as well. [Source: Medicare Glossary]
HOSPITAL
Licensed establishment primarily engaged in providing medical, diagnostic, and treatment services that include physician, nursing, and other health services to in-patients and the specialised accommodation services required by in-patients. Hospital provides in-patient health services, many of which can only be provided using the specialised facilities and equipment that form a significant and integral part of the production process. In some countries, health facilities need in addition a minimum size (such as number of beds) in order to be registered as a hospital. Hospital may also provide out-patient services as a secondary activity. Hospitals can be classified in general hospitals, mental health and substance abuse hospitals and speciality (other than mental health and substance abuse) hospitals. A general hospital is a licensed establishments primarily engaged in providing diagnostic and medical treatment (both surgical and non-surgical) to in-patients with a wide variety of medical conditions. These establishments may provide other services, such as out-patient services, anatomical pathology services, diagnostic X-ray services, clinical laboratory services, operating room services for a variety of procedures, and pharmacy services. A mental health and substance abuse hospital is a licensed establishment primarily engaged in providing diagnostic and medical treatment, and monitoring services to in-patients who suffer from mental illness or substance abuse disorders. The treatment often requires an extended stay in an in-patient setting including hostelling and nutritional facilities. Psychiatric, psychological, and social work services are available at the facility. These hospitals usually provide other services, such as out-patient care, clinical laboratory tests, diagnostic X-rays, and electroencephalography services. A speciality hospital is a licensed establishment primarily engaged in providing diagnostic and medical treatment to in-patients with a specific type of disease or medical condition (other than mental health or substance abuse). Hospitals providing long term care for the chronically ill and hospitals providing rehabilitation, and related services to physically challenged or disabled people are included in this item. These hospitals may provide other services, such as out-patient services, diagnostic X-ray services, clinical laboratory services, operating room services, physical therapy services, educational and vocational services, and psychological and social work services. [Source: OECD. A System of Health Accounts]
HOSPITAL ADMISSION (HOSPITALISATION)
The initiation of care, usually referring to in-patient care, although the term may be used for day or community care as well. [Source: WHO. A Glossary of Terms for Community Health Care and Services for Older Persons]
HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION
Is a union of two or more hospitals e.g. within a certain geographic area or of the same owner that medically and operationally collaborate (e.g. with regard to purchase of medicines) in order to benefit from synergy effects.
HOSPITAL BEDS
Beds which are regularly maintained and staffed in a hospital and immediately available for the care of admitted patients. They can be divided in: Curative care (acute care) beds: are hospital beds that are available for curative care and where the principal clinical intent is to do one or more of the following: manage labour (obstetric), cure non-mental illness or provide definitive treatment of injury, perform surgery, relieve symptoms of non-mental illness or injury (excluding palliative care), reduce severity of non-mental illness or injury, protect against exacerbation and/or complication of an non-mental illness and/or injury which could threaten life or normal functions, perform diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Psychiatric care beds: are hospital beds accommodating patients with mental health problems. Long term care beds: are hospital beds accommodating patients requiring long term care due to chronic impairments and a reduced degree of independence in activities of daily living (including beds in long term care departments of general hospitals, beds for long term care in specialty (other than mental health and substance abuse), beds for palliative care). Other beds: All other beds in hospitals not elsewhere classified (including beds for rehabilitation). [Source: EUROSTAT. Definitions and data collection specifications on health care statistics (non-expenditure data)]
HOSPITAL BLOOD BANK
A hospital unit which stores and distributes and may perform compatibility tests on blood and blood components exclusively for use within hospital facilities, including hospital based transfusion activities. [Source: Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003)
HOSPITAL DAY (BED-DAY, IN-PATIENT DAY)
A day during which a person admitted as an in-patient is confined to a bed and in which the patient stays overnight in a hospital. [Source: EUROSTAT. Definitions and data collection specifications on health care statistics (non-expenditure data)]
HOSPITAL DISCHARGE
A (hospital) discharge is the formal release of a patient from a hospital after a procedure or course of treatment (episode of care). A discharge occurs anytime a patient leaves because of finalisation of treatment, signs out against medical advice, transfers to another health care institution or because of death. A discharge can refer to in-patients or day care patients. Transfers to another department within the same institution are not considered discharges. [Source: EUROSTAT. Definitions and data collection specifications on health care statistics (non-expenditure data)]
HOSPITAL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULARY (HOSPITAL FORMULARY, HPF)
A list of medicines that may be prescribed and applied by physicians in a hospital. Please note that the term “hospital formulary”, used here as synonym, may also be applied
HOSPITAL PHARMACY
Hospital pharmacy is the health care service, which comprises the art, practice, and profession of choosing, preparing, storing, compounding, and dispensing pharmaceuticals and medical devices, advising health care professionals and patients on their safe, effective and efficient use. Hospital pharmacy is a specialised field of pharmacy which forms an integrated part of patient health care in a health facility. Hospital pharmacy is the profession that strives to continuously maintain and improve the medication management and pharmaceutical care of patients to the highest standards in a hospital setting. [Source: European Association of Hospital Pharmacists]
HOSPITAL PRICE (AVERAGE SELLING PRICE TO HOSPITALS)
The price or amount paid by a hospital (or hospital pharmacy) in order to take delivery of certain unit of medicines. Often the hospital price corresponds to the pharmacy purchasing price. It may or may not include VAT.
HOSPITAL PURCHASING BODY (HOSPITAL PROCUREMENT BODY, HOSPITAL PURCHASING COMMITTEE, HOSPITAL PROCUREMENT COMMITTEE)
The hospital purchasing body is responsible for buying medicines used in their hospital(s) via direct negotiations with medicine companies or the process of public procurement. A hospital purchasing body can either be a single person (e.g. the hospital head pharmacist), a joint committee (e.g. hospital pharmacists of more hospitals), a designated purchasing department established at the management of a hospital or a hospital owner organisation.
HOSPITAL-ONLY MEDICINES (HOM)
Type of classification; medicines that may only be administered in hospitals. [Source: PPRI Glossary]
HUMAN MEDICINE
1. Any active ingredient or combination of active ingredients presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings. 2. Any active ingredient or combination of active ingredients which may be used in human beings with a view to making a medical diagnosis or to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions. [Source: PPRI Glossary]
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